Unlocking the Energy-Water-Carbon Nexus in Rice Cultivation: A Comprehensive Review


Vijayakumar S¹ * and Sayam Padma²
1   ICAR-Indian Institute of Rice Research, Hyderabad – 500030, India 

2 Professor Jayashankar Telangana State Agricultural University, Hyderabad – 500030, India. 

*Corresponding author Email: vijitnau@gmail.com; vijayakumar.s@icar.gov.in

Volume 16-(2), 2023   ;  https://doi.org/10.58297/PSJA9488   Click here for Pdf

Received: 12th October, 2023; Accepted: 16th November, 2023


Rice cultivation, as a cornerstone of global food security, holds significant environmental implications due to its carbon, water, and energy footprints. Energy, carbon and water footprint assessments can be powerful tools to guide sustainable food production systems. Due to higher water losses in conventional rice culture, the irrigation water footprint associated with rice cultivation increases, thereby elevating the energy and carbon footprint. Improper use of resources like fertilizers, pesticides, labour and fuel may lead to higher energy consumption. Several alternative rice production systems like Direct Seeded Rice (DSR), Alternate Wetting and Drying (AWD), System of Rice Intensification (SRI) as well as better nutrient management practices have been developed and refined to reduce energy, carbon and water footprint associated with rice cultivation. This review presents a comprehensive analysis of the intricate interplay between these footprints, highlighting potential trade-offs and synergies that warrant attention within the context of rice cultivation. Moreover, this review discusses in detail the significance of selecting appropriate rice cultivation techniques, such as direct seeded rice, SRI and alternate wetting and drying suitable for different ecologies in comparison to transplanted method of rice cultivation.